CO - Techinnovation

Cinématographe by the Lumière Brothers & History of AI

Cinématographe by the Lumière Brothers & History of AI

The Lumière brothers, Auguste and Louis, French inventors and the pioneer manufacturers of the first photographic groundbreaking invention called the Cinématographe, the first motion-picture camera and projector. Their invention conceived a new form of art and entertainment that radically transformed our society at all levels, social, economical, and cultural. By projecting moving images onto a large screen, it created a new, shared experience, the words "movie" and "cinema" were born with the Lumière's family.

Antoine Lumière, a painter turned photographer

Auguste and Louis, sons of Antoine Lumière, a well-known painter turned professional photographer. In 1870, due to the Franco­-Prussian war, Antoine Lumière decided to move his family away from the dangerous eastern border, they settled in the city of Lyon.

Antoine was a portrait painter and an award-­winning photographer, he opened a small business in pho­tographic plates in their new home in Lyon, today, the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. Two of his sons, Auguste and Louis, grew up immersed in the fascinating art of photography. In 1881, his 17-year-old son Louis invented a new “dry plate” process of developing film, which boosted his father’s business enough to fuel the opening of a new factory. By 1894, the Lumières were producing 15 million plates a year.

Antoine Lumière attended an exhibition of Edison’s kinetoscope in Paris. After his return, he showed his sons a length of the film he received from one of Edison’s concessionaires. Antoine advised them to try to develop a cheaper alternative to the peephole film-viewing device and its bulky camera counterpart, the kinetograph. The kinetoscope could only show a motion picture to one individual viewer at a time. Antoine urged Auguste and Louis to find a better way to project the film onto a screen, to allow a larger audience to view a movie at the same time.

Cinématographe

Auguste began experimenting during the winter of 1894, the following year the brothers developed the Cinématographe. Much smaller and lighter than the kinetograph weighed around 11 pounds and operated with the use of a hand-powered crank. The Cinématographe photographed and projected film at a speed of 16 frames per second, much slower than Edison’s device, 48 frames per second, which meant that it was less noisy to operate and used less film.

Urban Legend "L'arrivée d'un train en gare de La Ciotat", 1895

L'arrivée d'un train en gare de La Ciotat, is an 1895 French short black-and-white silent documentary film directed and produced by Auguste and Louis Lumière. The movie was filmed using the Cinematographe, an all-in-one camera, which also serves as a printer and film projector.

Contrary to myth, it was not shown at the Lumières' first public film screening on 28 December 1895 in Paris. Its first public showing took place in January 1896.

L'arrivée d'un train en gare de La Ciotat, is a 50-second silent movie that shows the entry of a train pulled by a steam locomotive into the gare de La Ciotat. The train station of the French coastal town of La Ciotat. Like most of the early Lumière films, "L'arrivée d'un train en gare de La Ciotat", consists of a single, unedited view illustrating an aspect of everyday life. There is no apparent intentional camera movement, the film consists of one continuous real-time shot. When the movie was shown to the audience in Paris, some of the people attending ran away in panic, thinking the train was real.

3D imaging by Louis Lumière

The Lumière Brothers were trying to achieve a 3D image even before the first-ever public exhibition of motion pictures. Louis Lumière re-shot "L'Arrivée d’un Train" with a stereoscopic film camera and exhibited the movie with a series of other 3D shorts at the 1934 meeting of the French Academy of Science.

Lumière experimented the so-called anaglyph process to present 3D photographed images, the preliminary result was a one-shot, one-minute film, "L'Arrivée d’un train", which shows a train pulling into a railway station, it should not be confused with "L'Arrivée d’un train en gare à la Ciotat". Unfortunately, the process tended to cause visual fatigue and could be viewed by only one person at a time, through a modified stereoscope, an optical instrument for viewing specially produced images through two eyepieces. In 1920, he published a report to the French Academy of Sciences on the feasibility of producing “stereoscopic” photographs. By the early 1930s, Lumière had developed an improved process for projecting “cinema in relief,” and he shot several “stereo-synthesis” demonstration pieces in Paris. These short films, along with the original stereoscopic remake of "Arrivée d’un train", were shown at a meeting of the French Academy in 1935 and then at a public screening in 1936. The market, however, was not yet ready for stereoscopic “3D” cinema. The 3D movie never took off commercially at that time while the conventional 2D version went mainstream.

History of AI with a cup of Earl Grey tea

If you have been reading the article until this point, I am sure you are wondering why the word AI was included in the title. Well, it will take another few minutes to take to this point. I recommend taking the time to make a proper "Cup of Tea". The one I love to enjoy most is the Ringtons Earl Grey, along the Yorkshire Tea, which I do prefer for early breakfast.

The water should now be hot enough, my tea is ready, so let's get back to the history of AI

Artificial intelligence (AI) firstly appears in 1956

The term ‘artificial intelligence’ was coined at a summer conference sponsored by the U.S. Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, DARPA, at Dartmouth College, in Hanover, New Hampshire. Following some of the attendee names, John McCarthy, Claude Shannon, Marvin Minsky, Arthur Samuel, Trenchard Moore, Ray Solomonoff, Oliver Selfridge, Allen Newell, and Herbert Simon. At the conference, Newell and Simon revealed a program called "Logic Theorist" or LT. The program was capable of proving elementary theorems in the propositional calculus.

Though the term ‘artificial intelligence’ made its advent at the 1956 conference, certainly the field of AI, operationally defined, a field constituted by practitioners who think and act in certain ways, was in operation before 1956.

In 1950 a famous Turing's Mind paper argues that the question “Can a machine think?” should be replaced with the question “Can a machine be linguistically indistinguishable from a human?.” Specifically, he proposes a test, the “Turing Test”. Alan Turing explicitly lays down the call for building machines that would provide an existence proof of an affirmative answer to his question. The call even includes a suggestion for how such construction should proceed. He suggests that “child machines” can be built, and that these machines could then gradually grow up on their own to learn to communicate in natural language at the level of adult humans. This suggestion has arguably been followed by Rodney Brooks and the philosopher Daniel Dennett in 1994, see the Cog Project.

Spielberg and Kubrick movie A.I. presents a cinematic exploration of Turing’s suggestion. The Turing Test continues to be at the heart of AI and the discussions of its foundationsArtificial intelligence (AI)

Today, AI is part of our daily life. Next-gen technologies will embed AI further in nearly every area of potential applications, encompassing our lives, from work to education, social activities to entertainment, health care to security, and defence.

Artificial Intelligence and its definition

The ability of a digital computer or computer-controlled robot to perform tasks commonly associated with intelligent beings. The term is frequently applied to the project of developing systems endowed with the intellectual processes characteristic of humans, such as the ability to reason, discover meaning, generalize, or learn from past experience. Since the development of the digital computer in the 1940s, it has been demonstrated that computers can be programmed to carry out very complex tasks—as, for example, discovering proofs for mathematical theorems or playing chess—with great proficiency. Still, despite continuing advances in computer processing speed and memory capacity, there are as yet no programs that can match human flexibility over wider domains or in tasks requiring much everyday knowledge. On the other hand, some programs have attained the performance levels of human experts and professionals in performing certain specific tasks, so that artificial intelligence in this limited sense is found in applications as diverse as medical diagnosis, computer search engines, and voice or handwriting recognition. (Encyclopedia Britannica)

I believe that your tea is almost finished, therefore, let's get back to the Lumière Brothers and their short-movie "L’arrivée d’un train en gare de La Ciotat". The movie was shown to the public in January 1896.

Denis Shiryaev, a Reddit user, has recently used AI to upscale the original movie to 60 frames-per-second 4K footage by using neural networks to fill-in any missing pixel and frame gap. To add FPS, the DAIN an AI-powered algorithm that efficiently and gracefully synthesizes any unseen frame. The result is impressive and quite promising considering the historical archives we have.

  • Valerio Domenico Gulli
    Valerio Domenico Gulli
    Senior Director Innovation & Digital Strategy, nFrames

    Valerio is a senior technology director focused on digital strategy and innovation with a passion for aerospace, photography, AI, AR, and digital twins. He loves to write about history, art, and digital trends. In particular, Modern Art began in 1860 during the first industrial revolution, shaping an era of rapid technology changes and industrial breakthroughs that transformed and evolved both the industrial manufacturing and the transportation systems. The first industrial revolution was a process that has deeply affected the living conditions at all levels social, economical, and cultural and has provided the ground to explore a new forms of arts and concepts. This article is dedicated to his grandfather Armando, a cinematographer, that during the Christmas time was setting up the kitchen with an old projector directed to the largest wall where we were watching the first Disney cartoons, such incredible memories in black and white.

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